TERMS: American History II

US History II Terms & Names: (The Americans textbook, 2003. *red cover book)

Chapter 13 Changes on the Western Frontier

Chapter 13 Section 1- Cultures Clash on the Prairie

Assimilation- a minority group’s adoption of the beliefs and way of life of the dominant culture
Battle of WoundedKnee- the massacre by US soldiers of 300 unarmed Native Americans at Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota, in 1890.
Dawes Act- a law, enacted in 1887, that was intended to “Americanize” Native Americans by distributing reservation land to individual owners
George A. Custer- US Army officer who was killed at the Battle of Little Big Horn.
Great Plains- the vast grassland that extends through the central portion North America, from Texas northward to Canada, east of the Rocky Mountains
Long Drive- the moving of cattle over trails to a shipping center
Longhorn- a breed of sturdy, long-horned cattle brought by the Spanish to Mexico and suited to the dry conditions of the Southwest
Sitting Bull- leader of the Hunkpapa Sioux
Treaty of FortLaramie- the treaty requiring the Sioux to live on a reservation along the Missouri River

Chapter 13 Section 2- Settling on the Great Plains

Bonanza farm- an enormous farm on which a single crop is grown
Exoduster- an African American who migrated from the South to Kansas in the post-Reconstruction years
Homestead Act- a US law enacted in 1862, that provided 160 acres in the West to any citizen or intended citizen who was head of household and would cultivate the land for five years; a law whose passage led to record numbers of US settlers claiming private property which previously had been reserved by treaty and by tradition for Native Americans nomadic dwelling and use; the same law strengthened in 1889 to encourage individuals to exercise their private property rights and develop homesteads out of the vast government lands
Morrill Act- laws enacted in 1862 and 1890 to help create agricultural colleges by giving federal land to states. Texas A&M University owes it existence to the Morrill Act.
Soddy- a home built of blocks of grass and soil: turf. Out on the Great Plains, there were few building materials, So, the settlers used what was available: sod.

Chapter 13 Section 3- Farmers and the Populist Movement

Bimetallism- the use of both gold and silver as a basis for a national monetary system
Farmers’ Alliances- groups of farmers, or those in sympathy with farming issues, who sent lecturers from town to town to educate people about agricultural and rural issues
Gold Standard- a monetary system in which the basic unit of currency is defined in terms of a set amount of gold
Grange- the Patrons of Husbandry--- a social and educational organization through which farmers attempted to combat the power of the railroads in the late 19th century
Oliver Hudson Kelly- started the Patrons of Husbandry, an organization for farmers that became popularly known as the Grange
Populism- a late 19th-century political movement demanding that people have a greater voice in government and seeking to advance the interests of farmers and laborers
William JenningsBryan- Democratic nominee that lost to William McKinley in the election of 1896. 
Born on March 19, 1860 and died on July 26, 1925, Bryan was an American orator (speaker) and politician from Nebraska, and a dominant force in the populist wing of the Democratic Party, standing three times as the Party's nominee for President of the United States (1896, 1900, and 1908). He served two terms as a member of the United States House of Representatives from Nebraska and was United States Secretary of State under President Woodrow Wilson (1913–1915). He resigned because of his pacifist position on World War I.  Bryan also participated in the famous SCOPES TRIAL. In 1921, when he was 61 years old, Bryan began a new campaign -- to ban the teaching of evolution in public schools. Many wondered if Bryan had given up his progressive ideals. Had his religious faith turned him against science, education and free speech? Few understood his reasons for opposing evolution.
William McKinley- Republican nominee that defeated William Jennings Bryan in the election of 1896
The Election of 1896: Watch this...

Chapter 14 A New Industrial Age

Chapter 14 Section 1 The Expansion of Industry

Alexander GrahamBell- invented the telephone
Bessemer Process- a cheap and efficient process for making steel, developed around 1850
Christopher Sholes- invented the typewriter in 1867
Edwin L. Drake- the first American to successfully drill for oil
Thomas Alva Edison- invented/innovated safe and less expensive electricity. He had over 1000 patents for inventions under his name. The most famous include
the Phonograph. ...that is the ability to capture, record, and preserve sound.
the Light Bulb. ...artificial light that we use at night, inside buildings, on computers, etc
the Motion Picture. ..the ability to watch pictures in motion: MOVIES ! ! ! ! 

Chapter 14 Section 2- The Age of the Railroads

Credit Mobilier- a construction company formed in 1864 by owners of the Union Pacific Railroad, who used it to fraudulently skim off railroad profits for themselves
George M. Pullman- developed a sleeping car (train car) and a town for his employees
Interstate Commerce Act- a law, enacted in 1887, that established the federal government’s right to supervise railroad activities and created a five-member Interstate Commerce Commission to do so
Munn v. Illinois- an 1877 case in which the Supreme Court upheld states’ regulation of railroads for the benefit of farmers and consumers, thus establishing the right of government to regulate private industry to serve the public interest
TranscontinentalRailroad- a railroad line linking the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the US, completed in 1869

Chapter 14 Section 3- Big Business and Labor

American Federationof Labor (AFL)- an alliance of trade and craft unions, formed in 1886
Andrew Carnegie- led the expansion of the American steel industry. He was a Tycoon, a Captain of Industry, and to some, a Robber Baron.
Eugene V. Debs- labor union leader that helped found the Industrial Workers of the World: IWW, or better known as the WOBBLIES.
Horizontal Integration- the merging of companies that make similar products. 
Vertical Integrationa company’s taking over its supplies and distributors and transportation systems to gain total control over the quality and cost of its product
Industrial Workers ofthe World (IWW)- a labor organization for unskilled workers, formed by a group of radical unionists and socialists in 1905
John D. Rockefeller- American oil industry mogol, or leader. He was a Tycoon, a Captain of Industry, and to some, a Robber Baron.
Mary Harris Jones- organizer in the women’s labor movement
Samuel Gompers- Labor union leader that founded the American Federation of Labor
Sherman AntitrustAct- a law, enacted in 1890, that was intended to prevent the creation of monopolies by making it illegal to establish trusts that interfered with free trade
Social Darwinism- an economic and social philosophy--- supposedly based on the biologist Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection--- holding that a system of unrestrained competition will ensure the survival of the fittest

Chapter 15 Immigrants and Urbanization

Chapter 15 Section 1- The New Immigrants

Angel Island- An island in San Francisco Bay that served as an immigration station for the newly arrived immigrants (primarily Chinese)
Chinese Exclusion Act- a law, enacted in 1882, that prohibited all Chinese except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials from entering the US
Ellis Island- An island in New York harbor that served as an immigration station for the newly arrived immigrants
Gentlemen’s Agreement- a 1907-1908 agreement by the government of Japan to limit Japanese immigration to the US
Melting Pot- a mixture of people from different cultures and races who blend together by abandoning their native languages and cultures
Nativism- favoring the interests of native-born people over foreign-born people

Chapter 15 Section 2- The Challenges of Urbanization

Americanization movement- education program designed to help immigrants assimilate to American culture
Jane Addams- activist who founded Chicago’s Hull House in 1889
Mass Transit- transportation systems designed to move large numbers of people along fixed routes
Settlement House- a community center providing assistance to residents- particularly immigrants- in a slum neighborhood
Social Gospel Movement- a 19th century reform movement based on the belief that Christians have a responsibility to help improve working conditions and alleviate poverty
Tenement- a multifamily urban dwelling, usually overcrowded and unsanitary
Urbanization- the growth of cities

Chapter 15 Section 3- Politics in the Gilded Age

Benjamin Harrison- Republican president that raised tariffs
Boss Tweed- William Tweed, head of Tammany Hall, New York City’s powerful Democratic political machine
Chester A. Arthur- Took over the Presidency when Garfield is assassinated
Civil Service- the nonmilitary branches of government administration
Graft- the illegal use of political influence for personal gain
Grover Cleveland- first Democratic nominee to win the Presidency in 28 years, only President to serve two nonconsecutive terms
James A. Garfield- Republican president that was assassinated
Patronage- an officeholder’s power to appoint people--- usually those who have helped him or her get elected--- to positions in government
Pendleton Civil Service Act- a law, enacted in 1883, that established a bipartisan civil service commission to make appointments to government jobs by means of the merit system
Political Machine- an organized group that controls a political party, in a city and offers services to voters and businesses in exchange for political and financial support
Rutherford B. Hayes- Republican president that exposed corruption and fired people within his own political party

Chapter 16 Life at the Turn of the 20th Century

Chapter 16 Section 1- Science and Urban Life

Daniel Burnham- architect that designed the Flatiron Building
Frederick Law Olmsted- landscape architect that led the movement for planned urban parks and designed Central Park in New York City.
George Eastman- developed the Kodak camera that utilized film which made photography accessible to the masses
Louis Sullivan- architect thought to be the father of the skyscraper
Orville and Wilbur Wright- brothers that invented the airplane and were first to fly

Chapter 16 Section 2- Expanding Public Education

Booker T. Washington- prominent African American educator that pushed for the education of African Americans (gradual approach) and headed the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute
Niagara Movement- founded by W.E.B. Dubois in 1905 to promote the education of African Americans in the liberal arts
Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute- founded in 1881, and led by Booker T. Washington, to equip African Americans with teaching diplomas and useful skills in the trades and agriculture
W.E.B. Du Bois- founder of the Niagara Movement and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

Chapter 16 Section 3- Segregation and Discrimination

Debt Peonage- a system in which workers are bound in servitude until their debts are paid
Grandfather clause- a provision that exempts certain people from a law on the basis of previously existing circumstances--- especially a clause formerly in some Southern states’ constitutions that exempted whites from the strict voting requirements used to keep African Americans from the polls
Ida B. Wells- an African American writer that wrote and lectured about the need for civil rights
Jim Crow Laws- laws enacted by Southern state and local governments to separate white and black people in public and private facilities
Plessy v. Ferguson- an 1896 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that separation of the races in public accommodations was legal, thus establishing the “separate but equal” doctrine
Poll Tax- an annual tax that formerly had to be paid in some Southern states by anyone wishing to vote
Segregation- the separation of people on the basis of race

Chapter 16 Section 4- The Dawn of Mass Culture

Ashcan School-
Joseph Pultizer- owned the New York World newspaper and was the first to publish things other than news such as comics, sports coverage, and women’s news
Mark Twain- novelist that wrote about realistic, every-day people; The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was one of his most famous works
Rural Free Delivery (RFD)- the free government delivery of mail and packages to homes in rural areas, begun in 1896
WIlliam Randolph Hearst- owned the New York Morning Journal which published exaggerated stories in order to sell more papers

Chapter 17 The Progressive Era

Chapter 17 Section 1- The Origins of Progressivism

Florence Kelley- an advocate for improving the lives of women and children, and helped to to pass the Illinois Factory Act of 1893
Initiative- a procedure by which a legislative measure can be originated by the people rather than by lawmakers
Muckraker- one of the magazine journalists who exposed the corrupt side of business and public life in the early 1990s
Progressive Movement- an early 20-century reform movement seeking to return control of the government to the people, to restore economic opportunities, and to correct injustices in American life
Prohibition- the banning of the manufacture, sale, and possession of alcoholic beverages
Recall- a procedure for removing a public official from office by a vote of the people
Referendum- a procedure by which a proposed legislative measure can be submitted to a vote of the people
Robert M. La Follette- a progressive Republican that worked to better regulate big business, especially the railroad industry
Scientific Management- the application of scientific principles to increase efficiency in the workplace
Seventeenth Amendment- an amendment to the US Constitution, adopted in 1913, that provides for the election of US senators by the people rather than by state legislatures

Chapter 17 Section 2- Women in Public Life

NACW- the National Association of Colored Women--- a social service organization founded in 1896
NAWSA- the National American Woman Suffrage Association--- an organization founded in 1890 to gain voting rights for women
Suffrage- the right to vote
Susan B. Anthony- a leading proponent of woman suffrage

Chapter 17 Section 3- Teddy Roosevelt’s Square Deal

Conservation- the planned management of natural resources, involving the protection of some wilderness areas and the development of others for the common good
Meat Inspection Act- a law, enacted in 1906, that established strict cleanliness requirements for meatpackers and created a federal meat-inspection program
NAACP- the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People--- an organization founded in 1909 to promote full racial equality
Pure Food and Drug Act- a law enacted in 1906 to halt the sale of contaminated foods and drugs and to ensure truth in labeling
Square Deal- President Roosevelt’s program of progressive reforms designed to protect the common people against big business
The Jungle- a novel by Upton Sinclair, published in 1906, that portrays the dangerous and unhealthy conditions prevalent in the meatpacking industry at that time
Theodore Roosevelt- Republican President that supported the Progressive Era changes
Upton Sinclair- author of the novel The Jungle that portrayed the dangerous and unhealthy conditions prevalent in the meatpacking industry at the time

Chapter 17 Section 4- Progressivism Under Taft

Bull Moose Party- a name given to the Progressive Party, formed to support Theodore Roosevelt’s candidacy for the presidency
Gifford Pinchot- head of the US Forest Service that proposed a compromise between the preservation model and the unrestricted development of big business; believed the wilderness areas could be scientifically managed to yield public enjoyment while allowing private development
Payne-Aldrich Tariff-
William Howard Taft- Republican President that lost reelection because he wasn’t conservative enough for the Republican party
Woodrow Wilson- Democrat progressive President that brought many economic and political reforms

Chapter 17 Section 5- Wilson’s New Freedom

Carrie Chapman Catt- President of the NAWSA that pushed for woman suffrage
Clayton Antitrust Act- a law, enacted in 1914, that made certain monopolistic business practices illegal and protected the rights of labor unions and farm organizations
Federal Reserve System- a national banking system, established in 1913, that controls the US money supply and the availability of credit in the country
Federal Trade Commission (FTC)- a federal agency established in 1914 to investigate and stop unfair business practices
Nineteenth Amendment- an amendment to the US Constitution, adopted in 1920, that gives women the right to vote

Chapter 18 America Claims an Empire

Chapter 18 Section 1- Imperialism and America

Alfred T. Mahan- Navy Admiral that advocated for American military expansion
Imperialism- the policy of extending a nation’s authority over other countries by economic, political, or military means
Pearl Harbor- an American naval base in Hawaii used to refuel American ships
Sanford B. Dole- leader of the temporary government established in Hawaii after overthrowing Queen Liliuokaiani
Queen Liliuokaiani- Queen of Hawaii that surrendered to the US, causing the annexation of Hawaii in 1893
William Seward- arranged for the US to purchase Alaska from the Russians for $7.2 million (about two cents an acre)

Chapter 18 Section 2- The Spanish-American War

George Dewey- commanded the attack on the Spanish ships and troops in the Philippines
Jose Marti- Cuban poet that launched a Cuban revolution against Spain based on an active guerrilla campaign and destroying property
Rough Riders- a volunteer cavalry regiment, commanded by Leonard Wood and Theodore Roosevelt, that served in the Spanish-American War
San Juan Hill- location of the most important battle of the Spanish-American War where the Rough Riders defeated the Spanish troops
Treaty of Paris- (1898) the treaty ending the Spanish-American War, in which Spain freed Cuba, turned over the islands of Guam and Puerto Rico to the US, and sold the Philippines to the US for $20 million
U.S.S. Maine- a US warship that mysteriously exploded and sank in the harbor of Havana, Cuba on February 15, 1898
Valeriano Weyler- Spanish General sent to Cuba to crush the rebellion, put 300,000 Cubans in concentrations camps to prevent them from aiding the rebel force
Yellow journalism- the use of sensationalized and exaggerated reporting by newspapers and magazines to attract readers

Chapter 18 Section 3- Acquiring New Lands

Boxer Rebellion- a 1900 rebellion in which members of a Chinese secret society sought to free their country from Western influence
Emilio Aguinaldo- Filipino leader that led a revolt against the US annexation of the Philippines
Foraker Act- legislation passed by Congress in 1900, in which the US ended military rule in Puerto Rico and set up a civil government
John Hay- US Secretary of State that issued a series of policy statements called the Open Door notes
Open Door notes- messages sent by Secretary of State John Hay in 1899 to Germany, Russia, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan, asking the countries not to interfere with US trading rights in China
Platt Amendment- a series of provisions that, in 1901, the US insisted Cuba add to its new constitution, commanding Cuba to stay out of debt and giving the US the right to intervene in the country and the right to buy or lease Cuban land for naval and fueling stations
Protectorate- a country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger person

Chapter 18 Section 4- America as a World Power

Dollar diplomacy- the US policy of using the nation’s economic power to exert influence over other countries
Emiliano Zapata- Mexican revolutionary leader
Francisco “Pancho” Villa- Mexican revolutionary general
John J. Pershing- American General sent into Mexico to find and eliminate Mexican revolutionary leader Francisco Villa
Panama Canal- an artificial waterway cut through the Isthmus of Panama to provide a shortcut between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, opened in 1914
Roosevelt Corollary- an extension of the Monroe Doctrine, announced by President Roosevelt in 1904, under which the US claimed the right to protect its economic interests by means of military intervention in the affairs of Western Hemisphere nations

Chapter 19 The First World War

Chapter 19 Section 1- World War I Begins

Allies- the group of nations- originally consisting of Great Britain, France, and Russia, and later joined by the US, Italy, and others- that opposed the Central Powers
Archduke Franz Ferdinand- heir to the Austrian throne, was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist which triggered the start of WWI
Central Powers- the group of nations- led by Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire- that opposed the Allies in WWI
Lusitania- a British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-boat in 1915
Militarism- the policy of building up armed forces in aggressive preparedness for war and their use as a tool of diplomacy
Nationalism- a devotion to the interest and culture of one’s nation
No man’s land- an unoccupied region between opposing armies
Trench Warfare- military operations in which the opposing forces attack and counterattack from systems of fortified ditches rather than on an open battlefield
Zimmermann note- a message send in 1917 by the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico, proposing a German-Mexican alliance and promising to help Mexico regain Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona if the US entered WWI

Chapter 19 Section 2- American Power Tips the Balance

Alvin York- one of the most decorated soldiers in the US Army in WWI
American Expeditionary Force- the US force, led by General John Pershing, who fought with the Allies in Europe during WWI
Armistice- a truce, or agreement to end an armed conflict
Conscientious Objector- a person who refuses, on moral grounds, to participate in warfare
Convoy System- the protection of merchant ships from U-boat-- German submarine-- attacks by having the ships travel in large groups escorted by warships
Eddie Rickenbacker- famous fighter pilot of WWI; Allied pilot with the most victories
General John J. Pershing- American General that led the American Expeditionary Force in WWI
Selective Service Act- a law, enacted in 1917, that required men to register for military service

Chapter 19 Section 3- The War at Home

Bernard M. Baruch- a prosperous businessman that led the War Industries Board
Espionage and Sedition Acts- two laws, enacted in 1917 and 1918, that imposed harsh penalties on anyone interfering with or speaking against US participation in WWI
George Creel- former muckraking journalist that headed the Committee on Public Information
Great Migration- the large-scale movement of African Americans from the South to Northern cities in the early 20th century
Propaganda- a kind of biased communication designed to influence people’s thoughts and actions
War Industries Board- an agency established during WWI to increase efficiency and discourage waste in war-related industries

Chapter 19 Section 4-

David Lloyd George- the British Prime Minister that was part of the “Big Four” that worked out the peace treaty after WWI
Fourteen Points- the principles making up President President Woodrow Wilson’s plan for world peace following WWI
Georges Clemenceau- the French premier that was part of the “Big Four” that worked out the peace treaty after WWI
Henry Cabot Lodge- an American senator that led the group of conservative senators that suggested multiple amendments to the Treaty of Versailles, primarily regarding foreign policy and the ability to declare war
League of Nations- an association of nations established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace
Reparations- the compensation paid by a defeated nation for the damage or injury it inflicted during a war
Treaty of Versailles- the 1919 peace treaty at the end of WWI which established new nations, borders and war reparations
War-Guilt clause- a provision in the Treaty of Versailles by which Germany acknowledged that it alone was responsible for WWI

Chapter 20 Politics of the Roaring Twenties

Chapter 20 Section 1- Americans Struggle with Postwar Issues

Anarchists- a person who opposed all forms of government
Communism- an economic and political system based on one-party government and state ownership of property
Isolationism- opposition to political and economic entanglements with other countries
John L. Lewis- an American leader of organized labor who served as president of the United Mine Workers of America from 1920 to 1960
Nativism- favoring the interests of native-born people over foreign-born people
Sacco and Vanzetti- famous victims of nativism; convicted and sentenced to death on circumstantial evidence mostly because they were Italian immigrants
Quota system- a system that sets limits on how many immigrants from various countries a nation will admit each year

Chapter 20 Section 2- The Harding Presidency

Albert B. Fall- Secretary of the Interior that was found guilty of bribery for selling federal land to private oil companies
Charles Evans Hughes- Secretary of State that encouraged the major naval powers to disarm
Fordney-McCumber Tariff- a set of regulations, enacted by Congress in 1922, that raised taxes on imports to record levels in order to protect American businesses against foreign competition
Ohio gang- a group of close friends and political supporters whom President Warren G. Harding appointed to his cabinet
Teapot Dome scandal- Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall’s secret leasing of the oil-rich public land to private companies in return for money and land
Warren G. Harding- Republican President that took over after Woodrow Wilson

Chapter 20 Section 3- The Business of America

Calvin Coolidge- Republican President that favored government policies that would keep taxes down and business profits up
Installment Plan- an arrangement in which a purchaser pays over an extended time, without having to put down much money at the time of purchase
Urban Sprawl- the unplanned and uncontrolled spreading of cities into surrounding regions

Chapter 21 The Roaring Life of the 1920s

Chapter 21 Section 1- Changing Ways of Life

Bootlegger- a person who smuggled alcoholic beverages into the US during Prohibition
Clarence Darrow- famous trial lawyer hired by the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) to defend John Scopes
Fundamentalism- a Protestant religious movement grounded in the belief that all the stories and details in the Bible are literally true
Prohibition- the period from 1920- 1933 during which the Eighteenth Amendment forbidding the manufacture and sale of alcohol was in force in the US
Scopes Trial- a sensational 1925 court case in which the biology teacher John T. Scopes was tried for challenging a Tennessee law that outlawed the teaching of evolution
Speakeasy- a place where alcoholic drinks were sold and consumed illegally during Prohibition

Chapter 21 Section 2- The Twenties Woman

Double standard- a set of principles granting greater sexual freedom to men than to women
Flapper- one of the free-thinking young women who embraced the new fashions and urban attitudes on the 1920s

Chapter 21 Section 3- Education and Popular Culture

Charles A. Lindbergh- American pilot that made the first nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic
Edna St. Vincent Millay- American writer that wrote poems celebrating youth and a life of independence and freedom from traditional constraints
Ernest Hemingway- famous writer that criticized the glorification of war
F. Scott Fitzgerald- famous writer that coined the term “Jazz Age”; wrote This Side of Paradise and The Great Gatsby
George Gershwin- American concert music composer that merged traditional elements with American jazz
Georgia O’Keeffe- famous American painter
Sinclair Lewis- first American to win a Nobel Prize in literature; wrote the novel Babbitt

Chapter 21 Section 4- The Harlem Renaissance

Bessie Smith- female blues singer; perhaps the most outstanding vocalist of the decade
Claude McKay- novelist, poet, and Jamaican immigrant urged African Americans to resist prejudice and discrimination
Duke Ellington- jazz pianist and composer; renowned as one of America’s greatest composers
Harlem Renaissance- a flowering of African American artistic creativity during the 1920s, centered in the Harlem community of New York City
James Weldon Johnson- leader of the NAACP and successful author
Langston Hughes- the best-known poet of the Harlem Renaissance; his poems described the difficult lives of working class African Americans
Louis Armstrong- famous African American musician that made personal expression a key part of jazz
Marcus Garvey- founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) that called for African Americans to return to Africa and form their own societies
Paul Robeson- famous African American dramatic actor
Zora Neale Hurston- successful African American author that wrote novels, folktales, and short stories

Chapter 22 The Great Depression Begins

Chapter 22 Section 1- The Nation’s Sick Economy

Alfred E. Smith- Democrat candidate that lost to Herbert Hoover in the election of 1928
Black Tuesday- a name given to October 29, 1929, when stock prices fell sharply
Buying on margin- the purchasing of stocks by paying only a small percentage of the price and borrowing the rest
Credit- an arrangement in which a buyer pays later for a purchase, often on an installment plan with interest charges
Dow Jones Industrial Average- a measure based on the prices of the stocks of 30 large companies, widely used as a barometer of the stock market’s health
Great Depression- a period, lasting from 1929 to 1940, in which the US economy was in severe decline and millions of Americans were unemployed
Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act- a law, enacted in 1930, that established the highest protective tariff in US history, worsening the depression in America and abroad
Price support- the maintenance of a price at a certain level through government intervention
Speculation- an involvement in risky business transactions in an effort to make a quick or large profit

Chapter 22 Section 2- Hardship and Suffering During the Depression

Bread line- a line of people waiting for free food
Direct Relief- the giving of money or food by the government directly to needy people
Dust Bowl- the region, including Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico, that was made worthless for farming by drought and dust storms during the 1930s
Shantytown- a neighborhood in which people live in makeshift shacks
Soup Kitchen- a place where free or low cost food is served to the needy

Chapter 22 Section 3- Hoover struggles with the Depression

Bonus Army- a group of WWI veterans and their families who marched on Washington, D.C., in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of a bonus they had been promised for military service
Boulder Dam- a dam on the Colorado River--- now called the Hoover Dam--- that wa built during the Great Depression as part of a public-works program intended to stimulate business and provide jobs
Federal Home Loan Bank Act- a law, enacted in 1931, that lowered home mortage rates and allowed farmers to refinance their loans and avoid foreclosure
Herbert Hoover- Republican President during the Great Depression
Reconstruction Finance Corporation- an agency established in 1932 to provide emergency financing to banks, life-insurance companies, railroads, and other large businesses

Chapter 23 The New Deal

Chapter 23 Section 1- A New Deal Fights the Depression

Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)- a law enacted in 1933 to raise crop prices by paying farmers to leave a certain amount of their land unplanted, thus lowering production
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)- an agency, established as part of the New Deal, that put young unemployed men to work building roads, developing parks, planting trees, and helping in erosion-control and flood-control projects
Deficit spending- a government’s spending of more money than it receives in revenue
Federal Securities Act- a law, enacted in 1933, that required corporations to provide complete, accurate information on all stock offerings 
Franklin Delano Roosevelt- Democrat President that beat Herbert Hoover in 1932
Glass-Steagall Act- the 1933 law that established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to protect individuals’ bank accounts
Huey Long- a critic of the New Deal that proposed a nationwide social program called Share-Our-Wealth
National Industrial Recovery Act- a law enacted in 1933 to establish codes of fair practice for industries and to promote industrial growth
New Deal- President Franklin Roosevelt’s program to alleviate the problems of the Great Depression, focusing on relief for the needy, economic recovery, and financial reform

Chapter 23 Section 2- The Second New Deal Takes Hold

Eleanor Roosevelt- First lady of the country; a social reformer that worked to help those in need
National Youth Administration- an agency that provided young Americans with aid and employment during the Great Depression
Social Security Act- a law, enacted in 1935, to provide aid to retirees, the unemployed, people with disabilities, and families with dependent children
Wagner Act- a law-- also known as the National Labor Relations Act--- enacted in 1935 to protect workers’ rights after the Supreme Court declared the National Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional
Works Progress Administration (WPA)- an agency, established as part of the Second New Deal, that provided the unemployed with jobs in construction, garment making, teaching, the arts, and other fields

Chapter 23 Section 3- The New Deal Affects Many Groups

Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)- a labor organization composed of industrial unions founded in 1938, it merged with the AFL in 1955
Frances Perkins- America’s first female cabinet member (secretary of labor)
John Collier- commissioner of Indian affairs; helped create the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
Mary McLeod Bethune- hired by President Franklin Roosevelt to head the Division of Negro Affairs of the National Youth Administration
New Deal Coalition- an alliance of diverse groups--- including Southern whites, African Americans, and unionized workers-- who supported the policies of the Democratic Party in the 1930s and 1940s

Chapter 23 Section 4- Culture in the 1930s

Gone With the Wind- a 1939 movie dealing with the life of Southern plantation owners during the Civil War--- one of the most popular films of all time
Grant Wood- famous American artist that painted American Gothic
Orson Welles- actor, director, producer, and writer that created one of the most renowned radio broadcasts of all time, “The War of the Worlds”
Richard Wright- an African American that wrote the acclaimed novel Native Son, about a young man trying to survive in a racist world
The Grapes of Wrath- a novel by John Steinbeck, published in 1939, that deals with a family of Oklahomans who leave the Dust Bowl for California

Chapter 23 Section 5- The Impact of the New Deal

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)- an agency created in 1933 to insure individuals’ bank accounts, protecting people against losses due to bank failures
National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)- an agency created in 1935 to prevent unfair labor practices and to mediate disputes between workers and management
Parity- a government-supported level for the prices of agricultural products, intended to keep farmers’ incomes steady
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)- an agency, created in 1934, that monitors the stock market and enforces laws regulating the sale of stocks and bonds
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)- a federal corporation established in 1933, to construct dams and power plants in the Tennessee Valley region to generate electricity as well as to prevent floods

Chapter 24 World War Looms

Chapter 24 Section 1- Dictators Threaten World Peace

Adolf Hitler- dictator of Germany and leader of the Nazi Party during WWII
Benito Mussolini- fascist dictator of Italy during WWII
Fascism- a political philosophy that advocates a strong, centralized, nationalistic government headed by a powerful dictator
Francisco Franco- led a group of Spanish army officers to rebel against the Spanish republic
Joseph Stalin- communist dictator of the Soviet Union during WWII
Nazism- the political philosophy-- based on extreme nationalism, racism, and militaristic expansion--- that Adolf Hitler put into practice in Germany from 1933 to 1945
Neutrality Acts- a series of laws enacted in 1935 and 1936 to prevent US arms sales and loans to nations at war
Totalitarian- characteristic of a political system in which the government exercises complete control over its citizens’ lives

Chapter 24 Section 2- War in Europe

Appeasement- the granting of concessions to a hostile power in order to keep the peace
Blitzkrieg- from the German word meaning “lightning war,” a sudden, massive attack with combined air and ground forces, intended to achieve a quick victory
Charles de Gaulle- French General
Neville Chamberlain- British Prime Minister that used appeasement
Nonaggression pact- an agreement in which two nations promise not to go to war with each other 
Winston Churchill- Became British Prime Minister during WWII

Chapter 24 Section 3- The Holocaust

Concentration Camp- a prison camp operated by Nazi Germany in which Jews and other groups considered to be enemies of Adolf Hitler were starved while doing slave labor or were murdered
Genocide- the deliberate and systematic extermination of a particular racial, national, or religious group
Ghetto- a city neighborhood in which a certain minority group is pressured or forced to live
Holocaust- the systematic murder--- or genocide--- of Jews and other groups in Europe by the Nazis before and during WWII
Kristallnacht- “night of broken glass,” a name given to the night of November 9, 1938 when gangs of Nazi storm troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues in Germany

Chapter 24 Section 4- America Moves Toward War

Allies- the group of nations--- including Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the US--- that opposed the Axis powers
Atlantic Charter- a 1941 declaration of principles in which the US and Great Britain set forth their goals in opposing the Axis powers
Axis powers- the group of nations--- including Germany, Italy, and Japan---that opposed the Allies in WWII
Hideki Tojo- Japanese general and Prime Minister during WWII
Lend-Lease Act- a law, passed in 1941, that allowed the US and the Soviet Union agreed not to conduct nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere

Chapter 25 The United States in World War II

Chapter 25 Section 1- Mobilizing for Defense

A. Philip Randolph-  president and founder of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; threatened to organize a march of African Americans on Washington; led to Roosevelt issuing an executive order calling for employers and labor unions to no longer discriminate because of race, creed, color, or national origin
George Marshall- Army chief of staff general that pushed for the formation of a Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC)
Manhattan Project- the US program to develop an atomic bomb for use in WWII
Office of Price Administration (OPA)- an agency established by Congress to control inflation during WWII
Rationing- a restriction of people’s rights to buy unlimited amounts of particular foods and other goods, often implemented during wartime to ensure adequate supplies for the military
War Production Board (WPB)- an agency established during WWII to coordinate the production of military supplies by US industries
Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC)- US army unit created during WWII to enable women to serve in noncombat positions

Chapter 25 Section 2- The War for Europe and North Africa

Battle of the Bulge- a month-long battle of WWII, in which the Allies succeeded in turning back the last major German offensive of the war
D-Day- a name given to June 6, 1944-- the day on which the Allies launched an invasion of the European mainland during WWII
Dwight D. Eisenhower- American Army general during WWII
Harry S. Truman- Democrat Vice-President that took office after Roosevelt died in office
George Patton- American army general during WWII
Omar Bradley- American Army general during WWII
V-E Day- a name given to May 8, 1945, “Victory in Europe Day” on which General Eisenhower’s acceptance of the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany marked the end of WWII in Europe

Chapter 25 Section 3- The War in the Pacific

Battle of Midway- a WWII battle that took place in early June 1942. The Allies decimated the Japanese fleet at Midway, an island lying northwest of Hawaii. The Allies then took the offensive in the Pacific and bagan to move closer to Japan
Chester Nimitz- Admiral that commanded the American naval forces in the Pacific during WWII
Douglas MacArthur- American Army general that commanded the Allied forces in the Philippines during WWII
Hiroshima- an important Japanese military center where the US dropped the first atomic bomb
J. Robert Oppenheimer- American scientist that worked on the Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb
Kamikaze- involving or engaging in the deliberate crashing of a bomb-filled airplane into a military target
Nagasaki- the city that the US dropped the second atomic bomb on
Nuremberg trials- the court proceedings held in Nuremberg, Germany, after WWII, in which Nazi leaders were tried for war crimes

Chapter 25 Section 4- The Home Front

Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)- an interracial group founded in 1942 by James Farmer to work against segregation in Northern cities
GI Bill of Rights- a name given to the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act, a 1944 law that provided financial and educational benefits for WWII veterans
Internment- confinement or a restriction in movement, especially under wartime conditions
James Farmer- civil rights leader that founded an interracial organization called the Congress of Racial Equality to confront urban segregation in the North
Japanese American Citizens League (JACL)- an organization that pushed the US government to compensate Japanese Americans for property that had lost when they were interned during WWII

Chapter 26 Cold War Conflicts

Chapter 26 Section 1- Origins of the Cold War

Berlin Airlift- a 327-day operation in which the US and British planes flew food and supplies into West Berlin after the Soviets blockaded the city in 1948
Cold War- the state of hostility, without direct military conflict, that developed between the US and the Soviet Union after WWII
Containment- the blocking of another nation’s attempts to spread its influence-- especially the efforts of the US to block the spread of Soviet influence during the late 1940s and early 1950s
Iron curtain- a phrase used by Winston Churchill in 1946 to describe an imaginary line that separated Communist countries in the Soviet bloc of Eastern Europe from countries in Western Europe
Marshall Plan- the program, proposed by Secretary of State George Marshall in 1947, under which the US supplied economic aid to European nations to help them rebuild after WWII
North Atlantic Treaty Organization- a defensive military alliance formed in 1949 by ten Western European countries, the US and Canada
Satellite nation- a country that is dominated politically and economically by another nation
Truman Doctrine- a US policy, announced by President Harry Truman in 1947, of providing economic and military aid to free nations threatened by internal or external opponents
United Nations (UN)- an international peacekeeping organization to which most nations in the world belong, founded in 1945 to promote world peace, security, and economic development

Chapter 26 Section 2- The Cold War Heats Up

Chiang Kai-Shek- Korean nationalist that relied heavily on US aid
Korean War- a conflict between North Korea and South Korea, lasting from 1950 to 1953, in which the US, along with other UN countries, fought on the side of the South Koreans and China fought on the side of the North Koreans
Mao Zedong- Korean communist leader that relied heavily on aid from the Soviet Union
Taiwan- the island that Chiang Kai-Shek fled to where he, with the help and aid from the US, set up a National government--- the Republic of China
38th parallel- the dividing line that separates North Korea and South Korea

Chapter 26 Section 3- The Cold War at Home

Alger Hiss-
accused of being a communist spy; tried and found guilty of perjury
Blacklist- a list of about 500 actors, writers, producers, and directors who were not allowed to work on Hollywood films because of their alleged Communist connections
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg- a couple found guilty of espionage in relation to sharing secret information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union
Hollywood Ten- ten witnesses from the film industry who refused to cooperate with the HUAC’s investigation of COmmunist influence in Hollywood
HUAC- (House Un-American Activities Committee) a congressional committee that investigated Communist influence inside and outside the US government in the years following WWII
Joseph McCarthy- anti-Communist activist and Senator that chose to make unsupported claims about people’s ties to Communism
McCarthyism- the attacks, often unsubstantiated, by Senator Joseph McCarthy and others on people suspected of being Communists in the early 1950s

Chapter 26 Section 4- Two Nations Live on the Edge

Brinkmanship- the practice of threatening an enemy with massive military retaliation for any aggression
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)- a US agency created to gather secret information about foreign governments
Dwight D. Eisenhower- the Republican President that served during the Cold War
Eisenhower Doctrine- a US commitment to defend the Middle East against attack by any communist country, announced by President Eisenhower in 1957
Francis Gary Powers- an American U-2 pilot that was captured in the Soviet Union after his U-2 plane was shot down
H-bomb- the hydrogen bomb--- a thermonuclear weapon much more powerful than the atomic bomb
John Foster Dulles- secretary of state under Eisenhower that was staunchly anti-Communist
Nikita Khrushchev- gained power after Stalin’s death; believed that communism would take over the world and triumph peacefully
U-2 incident- the downing of a US spy plane and capture of its pilot by the Soviet Union
Warsaw Pact- a military alliance formed in 1955 by the Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellites

Chapter 27 The Postwar Boom

Chapter 27 Section 1- Postwar America

Dixiecrat- one of the Southern delegates who, to protest President Truman’s civil rights policy, walked out of the 1948 Democratic National Convention and formed the States’ Rights Democratic Party
Fair Deal- President Harry S. Truman’s economic program--- an extension of FDR’s New Deal--- which included measures to increase the minimum wage, to extend social security coverage, and to provide housing for low-income families
GI Bill of Rights- a name given to the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act, a 1944 law that provided financial and educational benefits for WWII veterans
Harry S. Truman- US President at the end of WWII after Roosevelt died in office
Suburb- a residential town or community near a city

Chapter 27 Section 2- The American Dream in the Fifties

Baby boom- the sharp increase in the US birthrate following WWII
Conglomerate- a major corporation that owns a number of smaller companies in unrelated businesses
Consumerism- a preoccupation with the purchasing of material goods
Dr. Jonas Salk- American doctor that developed the vaccine for polio
Franchise- a business that has bought to right to use a parent company’s name and methods, thus becoming one of a number of similar businesses in various location
Planned obsolescence- the designing of products to wear out or to become outdated quickly, so that people will feel a need to replace their possessions frequently

Chapter 27 Section 3- Popular Culture

Beat movement- a social and artistic movement of the 1950s, stressing unrestrained literary self-expression and nonconformity with the mainstream culture
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)- an agency that regulates US communications industries, including radio and television broadcasting
Jazz- a style of music characterized by the use of improvisation
Mass media- the means of communication--- such as television, newspapers, and radio--- that reach large audiences
Rock ‘n’ roll- a form of American popular music that evolved in the 1950s out of rhythm and  blues, country, jazz, gospel, and pop; the American musical form characterized by heavy rhythms and simple melodies which has spread worldwide having significant impacts on social dancing, clothing fashions, and expressions of protest

Chapter 27 Section 4- The Other America

Termination policy-
Urban renewal-

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